Identification and validation of a novel microRNA-like molecule derived from a cytoplasmic RNA virus antigenome by bioinformatics and experimental approaches
© Shi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 9 March 2014
Accepted: 24 June 2014
Published: 1 July 2014
It is generally believed that RNA virus replicating in the cell cytoplasm would not encode microRNAs (miRNAs) due to nucleus inaccessibility. Recent studies have described cytoplasmic RNA virus genome-derived miRNAs in West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue virus (DENV). However, naturally occurring miRNAs derived from the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus have not been described.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was served as a model virus to investigate whether the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus would be processed into miRNAs or miRNA-like small RNAs upon infection. HAV antigenome was queried for putative miRNA precursors (pre-miRNA) with the VMir analyzer program. Mature miRNA prediction was performed using MatureBayes and Bayes-SVM-MiRNA web server v1.0. Finally, multiple experimental approaches, including cloning and sequencing-, RNAi-, plasmid-based miRNA expression- and luciferase reporter assays, were performed to identify and validate naturally occurring viral antigenome-derived miRNAs.
Using human HAV genotype IA (isolate H2) (HAVH2), a virally encoded miRNA-like small RNA was detected on the antigenome and named hav-miR-N1-3p. Transcription of viral pre-miRNA in KMB17 and HEK293T cells led to mature hav-miR-N1-3p production. In addition, silencing of the miRNA-processing enzyme Dicer or Drosha caused a dramatic reduction in miRNA levels. Furthermore, artificial target of hav-miR-N1-3p was silenced by synthesized viral miRNA mimics and the HAVH2 naturally-derived hav-miR-N1-3p.
These results suggested that the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus could be processed into functional miRNAs. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis that cytoplasmic RNA viruses naturally encode miRNAs through cellular miRNA processing machinery.
KeywordsHepatitis A virus Antigenome MicroRNA-like molecule Picornavirus
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (approximately 22 nucleotide) regulatory non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by inhibiting the translation of mRNA transcripts or cleaving them [1–4]. MicroRNAs are encoded by cellular or viral genomes [5, 6] and play a vital role in numerous cellular processes, including cell metabolism, viral infection, and antiviral immune response [7–9].
Indeed, a large number of miRNAs have been discovered in numerous organisms . As an effective and economic regulatory strategy of gene expression, miRNAs are employed by viruses to regulate the expression of their own genes, host genes, or both [10, 11]. Most viral miRNAs have been identified by traditional cloning strategy from virus-infected cells [12–15], yet others have been identified following computational prediction and hybridization analysis [15–17]. The current release (v20.0) of the miRNA registry [18, 19] miRBase database lists 24,521 miRNAs, of which 493 viral miRNAs, indicating that diverse virus families encode miRNAs, including DNA and RNA viruses. It is noteworthy that the majority of known viral miRNAs are encoded by DNA viruses and only a few derived from RNA viruses. Indeed, DNA virus-encoded miRNAs are generally accepted, while miRNAs from RNA viruses, especially those that replicate in the cytoplasm, are controversial [10, 11]. The rationale is that viruses with DNA genomes that replicate in the nucleus have access to cellular miRNA processing machinery; on the contrary, RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm and therefore would not encode miRNAs due to inaccessible miRNA processing machinery [10, 11]. Retroviruses are generally believed to have the ability to encode miRNAs since a DNA stage is included in their infectious cycle . It has been speculated that RNA viruses do not generate miRNAs, in order to avoid the adverse effects caused by the miRNA processing machinery . Therefore, naturally occurring miRNAs derived from RNA viruses have not been widely acknowledged.
To date, RNA virus-encoded miRNAs have been identified only in few retroviruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [21, 22], bovine leukemia virus (BLV) [20, 23] and two cytoplasmic RNA viruses, namely the West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue virus (DENV) [24, 25]. Despite the theoretical barriers preventing cytoplasmic RNA viruses from encoding miRNAs, recent studies have confirmed that laboratory engineered RNA viruses, including the influenza virus, sindbis virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), are capable of expressing miRNA-like small RNAs [26–30]. Furthermore, identification and validation of WNV and DENV derived miRNAs demonstrated that cytoplasmic RNA viruses indeed encode miRNAs through cellular miRNA processing machinery. Therefore, we hypothesized that the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus could be processed into miRNA-like small RNAs by the cellular miRNA processing machinery, similar to virus genomes. To test this hypothesis, we used a strategy that combined computational prediction and experimental validation with hepatitis A virus (HAV), a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus, searching for putative miRNA-like small RNAs. Although high-throughput sequencing has been widely used to characterize miRNA profiles and discover novel miRNAs in a variety of organisms, experimental screening of viral miRNAs by high-throughput sequencing of a large number of cDNA clones from infected cells is technically challenging, time consuming and likely incomplete. More importantly, viral gene expression displays highly constrained tissue-, time-, and replication state-specific patterns . The above mentioned drawbacks could be efficiently overcome by a strategy combining computational prediction and experimental identification.
In the present study, HAV strain H2 was chosen as a model virus to investigate whether the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus can be processed into miRNA-like small RNAs, for the following reasons: first, the H2 strain of HAV is highly attenuated and does not cause disease in humans, which makes it an ideal model for studying HAV life cycle and virus-host interactions. In addition, HAV is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus with approximately 7.5 kb genome and its antigenome is generated during viral replication. Finally, HAV has several unique biological characteristics that distinguish this virus from other members of the picornavirus family, including slow replication and persistent infection in most HAV/cell culture systems without a cytopathic effects [31–33]. Based on these HAV characteristics, we examined if its antigenome would encode miRNA-like small RNAs to regulate viral replication and virus-host interactions. Through computational prediction and experimental approaches, we demonstrated the generation and expression of a novel HAV antigenome-encoded miRNA in infected cells. This study provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can encode functional miRNAs through cellular miRNA processing machinery. In addition, our findings provide a basis for further works assessing the roles of the HAV antigenome-encoded miRNA during virus infection and virus-host interactions. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify and validate miRNAs on the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus.
Putative pre-miRNA stem-loop structures and mature miRNAs in hepatitis A virus antigenome
Information of the predicted HAV antigenome-encoded miRNAs
miRNA sequence (5'-3')
5912 to 5933
5931 to 5952
5953 to 5973
Bayes-SVM-MiRNA web server.
4272 to 4293
4306 to 4327
4264 to 4284
Bayes-SVM-MiRNA web server.
A HAV antigenome-derived small RNA is generated and expressed in infected cells
Depletion of Dicer decreases the expression of HAV antigenome-encoded hav-miR-N1-3p
Transcription of HAV pre-miRNA in KMB17 and HEK293T cells from plasmid results in mature hav-miR-N1-3p production
HAV antigenome-encoded hav-miR-N1-3p is biologically functional and mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS)
Although two novel miRNAs have been experimentally identified in WNV and DENV genomes, respectively [24, 25], the controversy remains as whether a virus with RNA genome that replicates in the cytoplasm can naturally encode functional miRNAs or miRNA-like small RNAs. The present study identified a novel miRNA-like small RNA generated from the antigenome of HAV strain H2 using computational prediction and experimental approaches. These findings provide new evidence for a cytoplasmic RNA virus encoding functional miRNAs. In this study, bioinformatics analysis played a crucial role in the discovery of the novel viral miRNA. However, computational prediction does not necessarily implies that the predicted miRNAs are indeed generated and expressed in virus-infected cells. Thus, experimental validation of predicted miRNAs is required and needed. Several techniques are available for this validation including cloning, RT-PCR and deep sequencing. A PCR-based directed cloning and sequencing assay for the predicted miRNAs was performed in this study. The results indicated that the miRNA candidate MR50-1 was successfully amplified and its actual sequence was revealed by sequencing. Obviously, computational prediction followed by experimental validation constitutes an effective and fast strategy for discovery and identification of novel and rare, time-, and tissue-specific miRNAs. Several studies have previously employed this strategy to identify a few miRNAs in numerous viruses [43–45]. Using the VMir analyzer program, the simian virus 40 (SV40), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) and murine polyomavirus (PyV) have been confirmed to encode one or more miRNAs [5, 6], which suggested that VMir analyzer program is an effective tool for searching new viral miRNA-like small RNAs.
As a RNA virus, HAV presents numerous mutations over its genome and antigenome during cell culture adaption [46–49], suggesting that the viral genome is not exactly the same among different cell-adapted passages and various HAV strains. Thus, it is difficult to find miRNAs that are completely conserved among different viral strains due to genome mutations. However, it is possible that some miRNAs are completely conserved among diverse viral cell-adapted passages. In this study, a specific HAV strain H2 was selected as a model virus. Using the VMir software, two miRNA precursors, MR50 and MR35, were found and shown to be completely conserved among different viral cell-adapted passages. These findings indicated that MR50 and MR35 stem-loops are always formed by the HAV strain H2 during infection. However, MR50 and MR35 are not conserved in other HAV strains. When other HAV strains were examined, other distinct pre-miRNA stem-loops were obtained, not MR50 and MR35. Theoretically, the HAV genome might form extensive RNA structures like antigenome, thus can be processed into miRNA-like small RNAs by the cellular miRNA machinery. Thus, we analyzed the genome of HAV with the VMir software, and obtained three pre-miRNAs, including MD5, MD61 and MD81, located in the viral genome coding region. These observations suggested that the RNA secondary structures of HAV strain H2 genome might be processed into miRNA-like small RNAs. It is noteworthy that the cellular miRNA machinery cannot distinguish viral genome from antigenome. However, the miRNA machinery can segregate stem-loop structures from non-stem-loop structures. This suggested that candidate pre-miRNA stem-loop structures, whether from viral genome or antigenome, might be processed into miRNA-like small RNAs. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether a cytoplasmic RNA virus antigenome can be processed into miRNA-like small RNAs. Thus, HAV genome-derived miRNAs are beyond the scope of the present work and will be further investigated in the future.
According to the criteria of novel miRNA annotation proposed by Ambros and Berezikov et al. [38, 50], non-coding small RNAs are defined as genuine miRNAs that fulfill a combination of expression and biogenesis criteria. A novel HAV antigenome-encoded miRNA candidate hav-miR-N1-3p from this study was defined as bona fide miRNAs, fulfilling these annotation criteria. In addition, we identified HAV antigenome-encoded hav-miR-N1-3p based on the miRNA biogenesis pathway and biologically silencing activity. Similar to previous results from Hussain et al.  for WNV encoded miRNA, silencing of Dicer led to a significant decline in hav-miR-N1-3p levels. Further, we noted that knockdown of Drosha reduced hav-miR-N1 expression. These findings further suggested that a cytoplasmic RNA virus could utilize the cellular miRNA processing machinery to produce their own miRNAs. Moreover, the biologically functional activity of the viral miRNA candidate was examined with robust silencing activity. This provides forceful evidence to support the conclusion that the viral miRNA candidate hav-miR-N1-3p was considered genuine miRNA. Overall, the predicted pre-miRNAs can be folded into typical stem-loop structures, and the mature sequence of 22 nt detected in HAV-infected cells. Interestingly, the mature miRNA was derived from the splicing of the predicted pre-miRNA, and knockdown of Dicer and Drosha reduced hav-miR-N1-3p expression. Most importantly, hav-miR-N1-3p silenced luciferase gene expression, both exogenously and endogenously, suggesting the significant functional activity of hav-miR-N1-3p. These results strongly indicated that hav-miR-N1-3p is a genuine miRNA encoded by HAV antigenome. Further investigations will be needed to determine the mechanisms by which HAV antigenome encodes miRNA-like small RNAs as well as the potential biological function of viral miRNA during infection and host-virus interactions. However, the preliminary prediction of hav-miR-N1-3p target genes in host and virus provided some clues for better understanding of the regulatory roles of viral miRNA on host-virus interactions. Indeed, HAV antigenome-encoded hav-miR-N1-3p was completely complementary to the corresponding region of the viral genome, which might lead to targeted cleavage of the viral genome so as to regulate viral replication. HAV displays idiographic interactions with host immune responses , which suppress MAVS-mediated signal transduction and block IFN-β induction [52–55]. Thus, genes involved in molecular pathways that are heavily affected by HAV might be regulated by the viral miRNA. Results of cellular target prediction analysis showed that hav-miR-N1-3p had a good sequence complementary with MAVS mRNA. This suggests that hav-miR-N1-3p might interact with the MAVS gene to regulate cellular antiviral pathways through modulation of MAVS gene expression. Without a doubt, more studies are needed to further describe the regulatory roles of viral miRNA.
In summary, we predicted two putative viral pre-miRNAs and six mature miRNAs derived from HAV antigenome. A novel HAV antigenome-encoded miRNA hav-miR-N1-3p was experimentally identified and validated by different and complementary approaches. As a next step, target gene identification for hav-miR-N1-3p will be performed to reveal its potential regulation of viral genes, host genes or both, involved in virus-cell interaction and viral replication in infected cells. Overall, this study is the first to report generation and expression of antigenome derived miRNA in a cytoplasmic picornavirus (hepatitis A virus), and strongly supports the idea that the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally encode functional miRNA-like small RNAs through the cellular miRNA processing machinery. Although the exact function of viral miRNA has not yet been elucidated, this study will facilitate further works on its potential biological roles.
This study demonstrated that the antigenome of a cytoplasmic RNA virus, hepatitis A virus, could be processed into functional miRNAs in infected cells. Our findings provide new evidence for the hypothesis that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally encode miRNAs through cellular miRNA processing machinery.
Cells, viruses, plasmids and reagents
Human lung diploid fibroblastic KMB17 cells (Institute of Medical Biology, CAMS, Kunming, China) were grown in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% bovine serum (Minhai Biotech, Beijing, China) at 37°C in a humid environment containing 5% CO2. HEK293T cells were purchased from Thermo Scientific (Cat no. HCL4517) and grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) (high glucose formulation, Gibco, Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (Gibco Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA) at 37°C in a humid environment containing 5% CO2. Human hepatitis A virus strain H2 (lg107.6 TCID50/ml), an attenuated vaccine strain (Institute of Medical Biology, Kunming, CAMS) was prepared in KMB17 cells .
The eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA6.2-GW/EmGFP-hav-pre-miRNA-50 obtained by inserting the entire viral pre-hav-miR-N1-3p sequence into pcDNA6.2-GW/EmGFP-miR vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was constructed via Gateway cloning using BLOCK-iT™ Pol II miR RNAi Expression Vector Kits (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s manual. The pmirGLO-hav-miRNA target expression plasmids wild-type (sensor) and mutant type (sensor-mut) were generated by inserting two tandem repeats of the antisense sequence of viral miRNA or cellular miR-154 (or mutated version) into 3' UTR of the luciferase gene of the pmirGLO vector (Promega, Madison, WI, USA), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. All constructs generated were confirmed by sequencing using universal primers (BGI, Guangzhou, China).
Mouse monoclonal anti-Dicer1 antibody 5D12.2 (1:5000 dilution; mouse monoclonal; Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA, USA), rabbit anti-actin polyclonal antibody (20536-1-Ap; 1:2000 dilution; rabbit polyclonal; Proteintech Group, lnc. Chicago, IL, USA), and appropriate HRP-conjugated anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies (1:10,000 dilution; Proteintech Group, lnc. Chicago, IL, USA) were used for immunoblotting.
Bioinformatics prediction of the miRNAs
A flowchart describing the computational prediction of putative miRNAs is shown in Figure 1. Briefly, the viral antigenome was scanned for miRNA precursors (pre-miRNA) stem-loop structures using VMir, a computational analyzer program [16, 35, 36] for prediction of putative pre-miRNAs. Six complete antigenome sequences of different cell-adapted passaged HAV strain H2 (GenBank accession no. EF406358.1, EF406359.1, EF406360.1, EF406361.1, EF406362.1, EF406363.1) were used . VMir predictions were carried out using default parameters. The putative pre-miRNAs that fulfilled filter parameters with VMir score ≥ 150 and window counts ≥ 35 were selected for further assessment. Subsequently, mature miRNA sequences from pre-miNRA stem-loops were predicted (Additional file 1). In order to extend the prediction coverage of the mature miRNAs, we performed two strategies: the MatureBayes tool  (http://mirna.imbb.forth.gr/MatureBayes.html) and Bayes-SVM-MiRNA web server v1.0 (http://wotan.wistar.upenn.edu/BayesSVMmiRNAfind/). Default conditions were followed for the MatureBayes tool. Folding energy was set at -15 kcal/mol when using Bayes-SVM-MiRNA web server v1.0; other filter parameters were set to default values.
Stem-loop RT-PCR analysis and PCR-based directed cloning of the miRNAs
KMB17 cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) /cell of HAV strain H2. Mock-infected cells was used as negative control. At 24 hours post-infection, total RNA was extracted with the Trizol reagent (Invitrogen China Ltd., Shanghai, China) according to manufacturer’s protocol. A highly sensitive and specific stem-loop RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of the candidate miRNAs as described previously [39, 57], with minor modifications. Briefly, first strand cDNA of miRNAs were synthesized using stem-loop RT primers (Additional file 3) and Reverse Transcription System (Cat. no. A5001; Promega, Madison, WI, USA), following the manufacturer’s instructions. Then, miRNA cDNAs were amplified by PCR in a mixture including rTaq DNA polymerase (TaKaRa, Dalian, China). The reaction mixture was subjected to 94°C for 5 min, followed by 40 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 15 sec, annealing at 56°C for 15 sec, and extension at 72°C for 30 sec. A cellular miR-154 was used as a positive control for miRNA size when products were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, to determine the specificity of qPCR products, agarose gel electrophoresis analysis and T-A cloning strategy were conducted. The PCR products were analyzed on 4% agarose gel and purified PCR products were subcloned into the pGEM-T vector (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and sequenced to verify the exact miRNA sequences. KMB17 cells were infected at MOI of 0.5 TCID50/cell of HAV. Cells infected at various time points 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours were analyzed for time course expression of miRNA. Stem-loop qRT-PCR was performed to quantify miRNA levels using Reverse Trancription System (Cat. no. A5001; Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and GoTaq qPCR kit (Cat. no. A6001; Promega, Madison, WI, USA). Cellular U6 snRNA was as an endogenous control. Relative expression levels were calculated using the 2-ΔΔCt method for infected versus uninfected cells .
RNA interference (RNAi) of the Dicer gene
The siRNA duplexes against the Dicer gene were synthesized according to sequences reported by Moore, et al. and Bennasser, et al. (Additional file 4). In order to avoid off-target effects, siRNAs were designed for multiple targets of the target gene. All siRNAs used for knockdown of the target gene and scrambled siRNA (a negative control) were chemically synthesized with 2' OME modification by GenePharma (Shanghai, China). siRNAs were dissolved in 0.1% diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) treated water to a final concentration of 20 μM and stored at -80°C. KMB17 cells were seeded in 6-well plates one day before transfection. The next day, when the cells reached approximately 50-70% confluence, 100 pmol siRNA against Dicer mRNA or non-specific negative control siRNA were transfected into KMB17 or HEK293T cells using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen China Ltd., Shanghai, China), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Seventy-two hours after transfection, siRNAs transfected cells were lysed with RIPA buffer (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA) containing the protease inhibitor PMSF (Solarbio, Beijing, China). Total cell protein extracts were collected for Western blot analysis.
Real-time quantitative RT-PCR
The expression levels of viral miRNA and the Dicer gene were analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) with specific primers (Additional files 3 and 5) using the Reverse Trancription System (Cat. no. A5001; Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and GoTaq qPCR kit (Cat. no. A6001; Promega, Madison, WI, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For viral miRNA, cellular U6 snRNA gene was determined by qRT-PCR in parallel as an internal standard control. Total RNA was analyzed on a CFX96™ Real-Time PCR system (Bio-Rad, CA, USA) using the following program: 94°C for 5 min, followed by 40 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 15 sec, annealing at 56°C for 15 sec, and extension at 72°C for 30 sec. Relative miRNA abundance was normalized against cellular U6 snRNA content and assessed by the 2-ΔΔCt method . For the Dicer gene, cellular Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA was determined by qRT-PCR in parallel as an endogenous control. Total RNA was analyzed on a CFX96™ Real-Time PCR system (Bio-Rad, CA, USA) under standard conditions using the following program: 94°C for 5 min, followed by 40 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 15 sec, annealing at 42°C for 15 sec, and extension at 72°C for 30 sec. Relative abundance of target gene mRNA was normalized to cellular GAPDH mRNA content and assessed by the 2-ΔΔCt method . Melting curve analysis was also carried out to determine qPCR product specificity. The Ct (cycle threshold) values were determined using default threshold settings. All qRT-PCR assays were performed with three biological replicates and three technical replicates.
Western blot analysis
Total protein in cell extracts was quantitated by the BCA protein assay Kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Thirty micrograms total protein were resolved on 8% SDS-PAGE gels and transferred onto PVDF membranes (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA), followed by blocking with 5% non-fat milk at room temperature for 2 hours. Membranes were probed with specific primary antibody overnight at 4°C, followed by incubation with appropriate (anti-mouse or anti-rabbit) HRP-conjugated secondary antibody at room temperature for 1 hour. Protein signals were visualized by ECL chemiluminescence using Immobilon Western HRP Substrate (Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol.
Luciferase reporter assay
A dual luciferase reporter assay using pmirGLO-hav-miR-N1-3p sensor and pmirGLO-hav-miR-N1-3p-sensor-mut was performed in HEK293T and KMB17 cells. Briefly, HEK293T cells were seeded at approximately 1 × 106 cells per well in a 24-well plate one day before transfection. The next day, 200 ng pmirGLO-hav-miR-N1-3p-sensor or pmirGLO-hav-miR-N1-3p-sensor-mut plasmid were co-transfected with 20 pmol chemically synthesized miRNA mimics (GenePharma, shanghai, China) (Additional file 6) into HEK293T cells with Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen). A cellular miR-154 served as a positive control, and mutated pmirGLO-hav-miR-N1-3p-sensor-mut was used as a negative control. Additionally, KMB17 cells prior to infection with HAV (MOI = 10.0 TCID50/cell) were seeded at approximately 1 × 106 cells per well in a 24-well plate one day before transfection. The next day, 200 ng wild type and mutated reporter sensor plasmids were transfected into HAV-infected and mock-infected KMB17 cells. The firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were evaluated simultaneously 48 hours post-transfection using the Dual-Glo™ Luciferase Assay System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Relative luciferase activity was expressed as the ratio of firefly to Renilla luciferase activity. The transfections were performed independently, in triplicate.
Values from three independent experiments were analyzed by two-tailed Student’s t-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant and P < 0.01 highly statistically significant.
Hepatitis A virus
- 3' UTR:
3' Untranslated region
West Nile virus
Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
Post-transcriptional gene silencing.
The authors thank Yue Wang, Liping Wang and Hongzhi Cai for technical assistance. This study was supported by grants from the National High Technology Research and Development Program (863 Program) of China (Grant No. 2012AA02A406), the Applied and Fundamental Research program of Yunnan Province (Grant No. 2013FA025), and the Innovation Team Project of Yunnan province of China “Provincial Innovation Team for Application Research on New Types of Vaccine Adjuvant, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences” (Grant No. 2011CI140).
- Almeida MI, Reis RM, Calin GA: MicroRNAhistory: discovery, recentapplications, and nextfrontiers. Mutat Res. 2011, 717: 1-8. 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2011.03.009.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brodersen P, Voinnet O: Revisiting the principles of microRNA target recognition and mode of action. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009, 10: 141-148. 10.1038/nrm2619.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carthew RW, Sontheimer EJ: Origins and Mechanisms of miRNAs and siRNAs. Cell. 2009, 136: 642-655. 10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.035.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim VN, Han J, Siomi MC: Biogenesis of small RNAs in animals. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009, 10: 126-139. 10.1038/nrm2632.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sullivan CS, Sung CK, Pack CD, Grundhoff A, Lukacher AE, Benjamin TL, Ganem D: Murine Polyomavirus encodes a microRNA that cleaves early RNA transcripts but is not essential for experimental infection. Virology. 2009, 387: 157-167. 10.1016/j.virol.2009.02.017.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seo GJ, Chen CJ, Sullivan CS: Merkel cell polyomavirus encodes a microRNA with the ability to autoregulate viral gene expression. Virology. 2009, 383: 183-187. 10.1016/j.virol.2008.11.001.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Walz N, Christalla T, Tessmer U, Grundhoff A: A global analysis of evolutionary conservation among known and predicted gammaherpesvirus microRNAs. J Virol. 2010, 84: 716-728. 10.1128/JVI.01302-09.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kincaid RP, Sullivan CS: Virus-encoded microRNAs: an overview and a look to the future. PLoS Pathog. 2012, 8: e1003018-10.1371/journal.ppat.1003018.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sun W, Julie Li YS, Huang HD, Shyy JY, Chien S: microRNA: a master regulator of cellular processes for bioengineering systems. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2010, 12: 1-27. 10.1146/annurev-bioeng-070909-105314.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cullen BR: Viruses and microRNAs. Nat Genet. 2006, 38 (Suppl): S25-S30.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grundhoff A, Sullivan CS: Virus-encoded microRNAs. Virology. 2011, 411: 325-343. 10.1016/j.virol.2011.01.002.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pfeffer S, Zavolan M, Grässer FA, Chien M, Russo JJ, Ju J, John B, Enright AJ, Marks D, Sander C, Tuschl T: Identification of virus-encoded microRNAs. Science. 2004, 304: 734-736. 10.1126/science.1096781.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cai X, Lu S, Zhang Z, Gonzalez CM, Damania B, Cullen BR: Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005, 102: 5570-5575. 10.1073/pnas.0408192102.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Samols MA, Hu J, Skalsky RL, Renne R: Cloning and identification of a microRNA cluster within the latency-associated region of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol. 2005, 79: 9301-9305. 10.1128/JVI.79.14.9301-9305.2005.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pfeffer S, Sewer A, Lagos-Quintana M, Sheridan R, Sander C, Grässer FA, van Dyk LF, Ho CK, Shuman S, Chien M, Russo JJ, Ju J, Randall G, Lindenbach BD, Rice CM, Simon V, Ho DD, Zavolan M, Tuschl T: Identification of microRNAs of the herpesvirus family. Nat Methods. 2005, 2: 269-276. 10.1038/nmeth746.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sullivan CS, Grundhoff AT, Tevethia S, Pipas JM, Ganem D: SV40-encoded microRNAs regulate viral gene expression and reduce susceptibility to cytotoxic T cells. Nature. 2005, 435: 682-686. 10.1038/nature03576.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cui C, Griffiths A, Li G, Silva LM, Kramer MF, Gaasterland T, Wang XJ, Coen DM: Prediction and identification of herpes simplex virus 1-encoded microRNAs. J Virol. 2006, 80: 5499-5508. 10.1128/JVI.00200-06.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Griffiths-Jones S: The microRNA Registry. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32: D109-D111. 10.1093/nar/gkh023.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock RJ, van Dongen S, Bateman A, Enright AJ: miRBase: microRNA sequences, targets and gene nomenclature. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006, 34: D140-D144. 10.1093/nar/gkj112.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kincaid RP, Burke JM, Sullivan CS: RNA virus microRNA that mimics a B-cell oncomiR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012, 109: 3077-3082. 10.1073/pnas.1116107109.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Y, Fan M, Geng G, Liu B, Huang Z, Luo H, Zhou J, Guo X, Cai W, Zhang H: A novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA enhances its viral replication by targeting the TATA box region. Retrovirology. 2014, 11: 23-10.1186/1742-4690-11-23.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kaul D, Ahlawat A, Gupta SD: HIV-1 genome-encoded hiv1-mir-H1 impairs cellular responses to infection. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009, 323: 143-148. 10.1007/s11010-008-9973-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rosewick N, Momont M, Durkin K, Takeda H, Caiment F, Cleuter Y, Vernin C, Mortreux F, Wattel E, Burny A, Georges M, Van den Broeke A: Deep sequencing reveals abundant noncanonical retroviral microRNAs in B-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013, 110: 2306-2311. 10.1073/pnas.1213842110.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hussain M, Torres S, Schnettler E, Funk A, Grundhoff A, Pijlman GP, Khromykh AA, Asgari S: West Nile virus encodes a microRNA-like small RNA in the 3’ untranslated region which up-regulates GATA4 mRNA and facilitates virus replication in mosquito cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012, 40: 2210-2223. 10.1093/nar/gkr848.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hussain M, Asgari S: MicroRNA-like viral small RNA from Dengue virus 2 autoregulates its replication in mosquito cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014, 111: 2746-2751. 10.1073/pnas.1320123111.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rouha H, Thurner C, Mandl CW: Functional microRNA generated from a cytoplasmic RNA virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010, 38: 8328-8337. 10.1093/nar/gkq681.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varble A, Chua MA, Perez JT, Manicassamy B, García-Sastre A, tenOever BR: Engineered RNA viral synthesis of microRNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010, 107: 11519-11524. 10.1073/pnas.1003115107.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shapiro JS, Varble A, Pham AM, Tenoever BR: Noncanonical cytoplasmic processing of viral microRNAs. RNA. 2010, 16: 2068-2074. 10.1261/rna.2303610.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varble A, ten Oever BR: Implications of RNA virus-produced miRNAs. RNA Biol. 2011, 8: 190-194. 10.4161/rna.8.2.13983.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Usme-Ciro JA, Campillo-Pedroza N, Almazán F, Gallego-Gomez JC: Cytoplasmic RNA viruses as potential vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic small RNAs. Virol J. 2013, 10: 185-10.1186/1743-422X-10-185.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Binn LN, Lemon SM, Marchwicki RH, Redfield RR, Gates NL, Bancroft WH: Primary isolation and serial passage of hepatitis A virus strains in primate cell cultures. J Clin Microbiol. 1984, 20: 28-33.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Frings W, Dotzauer A: Adaptation of primate cell-adapted hepatitis A virus strain HM175 to growth in guinea pig cells is independent of mutations in the 5' nontranslated region. J Gen Virol. 2001, 82: 597-602.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Provost PJ, Hilleman MR: Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in cell culture in vitro. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1979, 160: 213-221. 10.3181/00379727-160-40422.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thirugnanasambantham K, Hairul-Islam VI, Saravanan S, Subasri S, Subastri A: Computational approach for identification of Anopheles gambiae miRNA involved in modulation of host immune response. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2013, 170: 281-291. 10.1007/s12010-013-0183-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grundhoff A, Sullivan CS, Ganem D: A combined computational and microarray-based approach identifies novel microRNAs encoded by human gamma-herpesviruses. RNA. 2006, 12: 733-750. 10.1261/rna.2326106.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grundhoff A, Sullivan CS: Identification of viral microRNAs. Methods Enzymol. 2007, 427: 3-23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gkirtzou K, Tsamardinos I, Tsakalides P, Poirazi P: MatureBayes: a probabilistic algorithm for identifying the mature miRNA within novel precursors. PLoS One. 2010, 5: e11843-10.1371/journal.pone.0011843.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Berezikov E, Cuppen E, Plasterk RH: Approaches to microRNA discovery. Nat Genet. 2006, 38 (Suppl): S2-S7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen C, Ridzon DA, Broomer AJ, Zhou Z, Lee DH, Nguyen JT, Barbisin M, Xu NL, Mahuvakar VR, Andersen MR, Lao KQ, Livak KJ, Guegler KJ: Real-time quantification of microRNAs by stem-loop RT-PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005, 33: e179-10.1093/nar/gni178.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varkonyi-Gasic E, Wu R, Wood M, Walton EF, Hellens RP: Protocol: a highly sensitive RT-PCR method for detection and quantification of microRNAs. Plant Methods. 2007, 3: 12-10.1186/1746-4811-3-12.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meister G, Tuschl T: Mechanisms of gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. Nature. 2004, 431: 343-349. 10.1038/nature02873.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chua JH, Armugam A, Jeyaseelan K: MicroRNAs: biogenesis, function and applications. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2009, 11: 189-199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh J, Singh CP, Bhavani A, Nagaraju J: Discovering microRNAs from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus. Virology. 2010, 407: 120-128. 10.1016/j.virol.2010.07.033.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hussain M, Taft RJ, Asgari S: An insect virus-encoded microRNA regulates viral replication. J Virol. 2008, 82: 9164-9170. 10.1128/JVI.01109-08.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Besecker MI, Harden ME, Li G, Wang XJ, Griffiths A: Discovery of herpes B virus-encoded microRNAs. J Virol. 2009, 83: 3413-3416. 10.1128/JVI.02419-08.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hu NZ, Hu YZ, Shi HJ, Liu GD, Qu S: Mutational characteristics in consecutive passage of rapidly replicating variants of hepatitis A virus strain H2 during cell culture adaptation. World J Gastroenterol. 2002, 8: 872-878.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Emerson SU, Huang YK, McRill C, Lewis M, Purcell RH: Mutations in both the 2B and 2C genes of hepatitis A virus are involved in adaptation to growth in cell culture. J Virol. 1992, 66: 650-654.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Day SP, Murphy P, Brown EA, Lemon SM: Mutations within the 5' nontranslated region of hepatitis A virus RNA which enhance replication in BS-C-1 cells. J Virol. 1992, 66: 6533-6540.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Graff J, Kasang C, Normann A, Pfisterer-Hunt M, Feinstone SM, Flehmig B: Mutational events in consecutive passages of hepatitis A virus strain GBM during cell culture adaptation. Virology. 1994, 204: 60-68. 10.1006/viro.1994.1510.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ambros V, Bartel B, Bartel DP, Burge CB, Carrington JC, Chen X, Dreyfuss G, Eddy SR, Griffiths-Jones S, Marshall M, Matzke M, Ruvkun G, Tuschl T: A uniform system for microRNA annotation. RNA. 2003, 9: 277-279. 10.1261/rna.2183803.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dotzauer A, Kraemer L: Innate and adaptive immune responses against picornaviruses and their counteractions: an overview. World J Virol. 2012, 1: 91-107. 10.5501/wjv.v1.i3.91.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brack K, Berk I, Magulski T, Lederer J, Dotzauer A, Vallbracht A: Hepatitis A virus inhibits cellular antiviral defense mechanisms induced by double-stranded RNA. J Virol. 2002, 76: 11920-11930. 10.1128/JVI.76.23.11920-11930.2002.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fensterl V, Grotheer D, Berk I, Schlemminger S, Vallbracht A, Dotzauer A: Hepatitis A virus suppresses RIG-I-mediated IRF-3 activation to block induction of beta interferon. J Virol. 2005, 79: 10968-10977. 10.1128/JVI.79.17.10968-10977.2005.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Paulmann D, Magulski T, Schwarz R, Heitmann L, Flehmig B, Vallbracht A, Dotzauer A: Hepatitis A virus protein 2B suppresses beta interferon (IFN) gene transcription by interfering with IFN regulatory factor 3 activation. J Gen Virol. 2008, 89: 1593-1604. 10.1099/vir.0.83521-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang Y, Liang Y, Qu L, Chen Z, Yi M, Li K, Lemon SM: Disruption of innate immunity due to mitochondrial targeting of a picornaviral protease precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007, 104: 7253-7258. 10.1073/pnas.0611506104.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mao JS, Dong DX, Zhang HY, Chen NL, Zhang XY, Huang HY, Xie RY, Zhou TJ, Wan ZJ, Wang YZ, Hu ZH, Cao YY, Liand HM, Chu CM: Primary study of attenuated live hepatitis A vaccine (H2 strain) in humans. J Infect Dis. 1989, 159: 621-624. 10.1093/infdis/159.4.621.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varkonyi-Gasic E, Hellens RP: Quantitative stem-loop RT-PCR for detection of microRNAs. Methods Mol Biol. 2011, 744: 145-157. 10.1007/978-1-61779-123-9_10.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD: Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C (T)) Method. Methods. 2001, 25: 402-408. 10.1006/meth.2001.1262.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moore HC, Johnston M, Nicol SM, Bourdon JC, Thompson AM, Hutvagner G, Fuller-Pace FV: An evolutionarily conserved, alternatively spliced, intron in the p68/DDX5 DEAD-box RNA helicase gene encodes a novel miRNA. RNA. 2011, 17: 555-562. 10.1261/rna.2591611.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bennasser Y, Chable-Bessia C, Triboulet R, Gibbings D, Gwizdek C, Dargemont C, Kremer EJ, Voinnet O, Benkirane M: Competition for XPO5 binding between Dicer mRNA, pre-miRNA and viral RNA regulates human Dicer levels. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011, 18: 323-327. 10.1038/nsmb.1987.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.